Mystery Babylon the Great is a religious and apostate system which rides the beast (Satan) mentioned only once in scripture (Rev 17:5). Mystery Babylon both fosters and tolerates all the abominations of idolatry and spiritual fornication. It’s the embodiment of the modern ecumenical movement, representing all that is false. Mystery Babylon is described as the mother of a whore because whoredom is symbolic of religious fornication and idolatry, of which Rome is the gatekeeper.
The golden cup in her hand represents her uncleanness, whereby she dupes political powers under her influence. Mystery Babylon includes all false religions and cults within its bosom, seeking to unite all world religions under one umbrella. When the bride of Christ is removed from the earth in the rapture, prior to the tribulation, the bride of the Antichrist (Mystery Babylon) will remain. Mystery Babylon will soon become the largest religion in the world, if it isn’t already, reaching full maturation during the middle part of the tribulation period. At that time, the Antichrist will usurp Mystery Babylon and seek worship for himself under pain of death.
MYSTERY BABYLON is Rome
The identity of Mystery Babylon was clearly known even before the cannon was closed. Mystery Babylon is neither the United States, New York, London, Mecca, Jerusalem or Medina. Mystery Babylon is Rome, with the Vatican at its very core. The Bible calls MYSTERY BABYLON a ‘city’ not a nation. Catholic Rome claims to be the ‘Eternal City’ and the ‘Holy City.’ It also espouses to be the ‘New Jerusalem.’ The Bible explicitly says, “the woman…is that great city” (Rev 17:18).
The apostle Peter provides an essential clue when he references Rome as Babylon, “The church here in Babylon…sends you her greeting” (1st Peter 5:13). The literal city of Babylon was only a small backwater when Peter penned these words. He was speaking metaphorically. This reference of Babylon as Rome, is perhaps, one of the reasons for the Apostle Peter’s connection to the city (Rome).
Rome was labeled ‘Babylon’ by Tertulian, Jerome, Augustine, the Sibylline Oracles and Jewish Apocalyptic literature. Commentary within the Geneva Bible (1576), explicitly states the harlot of Revelation 17:5, as Rome. It was seen as ‘a second Babylon’ because, like the first Babylon, Rome was responsible for the destruction of Jerusalem. Babylon is also found as a name for Rome in the Apocrypha.
Vatican-city is a state, having its own army, bank, religious aspects and political-economic interests. It’s acknowledged as a sovereign state separate and distinct from the nation of Italy surrounding it. No other city enjoys this status. The Vatican has diplomatic relations with the governments of nations in which its operatives reside. These operatives include: Jesuits, Knights of Columbus, Knights of Malta, Opus Dei and others. No other city on earth matches the precise Biblical description of Mystery Babylon, as Rome does.
Throughout 1962-1965, under the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II), the papacy declared ‘all faiths equal,’ thereby nullifying Christs precious sacrifice on the cross and solidifying its identity as MYSTERY BABYLON. Incidentally, Pope John Paul II, Mother Theresa and Billy Graham were all in attendance. Lest we forget the term Catholic comes from the Greek word katholikos meaning ‘universal.’ Catholicism is ‘all things to all men,’ in the pursuit of total and absolute power in the earth. It seeks to establish an earthly kingdom in opposition to the spiritual, ‘kingdom of God’ that Christ came to implement.
Pergamos: Satan’s Throne
Mystery Babylon hearkens back to the Babylonian Empire. When Babylon was destroyed (539 B.C.), Satan needed a new epicenter to disseminate his lies in the earth. The capital of cultism shifted from Babylon to Pergamos (modern Turkey) in the years prior to John’s revelation. It was here, the altar of Zeus (Latin Jupiter aka Greek Saturn–Cronos), referred to as ‘Satan’s seat’ (Rev 2:13) was prominent in the city. Masonic writer Robert Macoy reveals, “that Baal was the Saturn of Greece and Rome.” Helena Blavatsky, the Ukrainian occultist, also identified Saturn as Baal. Saturn was also known as, the Egyptian God ‘Set’ (the god of evil).
This altar to Satan (under many monikers) now resides in Berlin for anyone who cares to pay the museum admission fee. Karl Hueman discovered it in 1864, transporting it, brick by brick, to Berlin in 1930. Although Satan’s throne made it to Germany the apostate religious system took a more circuitous route, finally ending up in Rome. Adolf Hitler (a Catholic) used this altar’s design for his backdrop at the Nuremberg Nazi Congress Rally (1935). Barack Hussein Obama chose a similar design for his DNC Convention in Denver, 2008.
The face of the Sun-god Apollo, is seated on the temple façade in the Pergamon Museum, in East Berlin. Pergamos (located northwest of Bergama, Turkey), was originally built on a lofty hill, in a district watered by three rivers. It served as a storehouse for royal treasure, and was greatly revitalized by Eumeses II (197-159 B.C.), who established a library containing 200,000 volumes, second only to the renowned Occultic library of Alexandria, Egypt. Incidentally, the library was accidentally destroyed by Julius Caesar in 48 B.C.
Pergamos was a Roman province and all the main roads of Western Asia converged there. It was renowned for the temple of Aesculapius, who was worshiped in the form of a living serpent, fed in the temple. Aesculapius was the god of Pergamon and often featured on coins struck by the town, appearing with a rod encircled by a serpent. This same snake is the emblem for modern-day medicine. The serpentine Aesculapius is represented in the four columned canopy in St. Peters Church, one of the many gods worshiped by the nomadic Mystery Religion that migrated from Babylon, via Pergamos to Rome (see below).
The Migration of Mystery Babylon
When Attalus, king of Pergamos died in 133 B.C., he bequeathed the headship of the Babylonian priesthood to Rome. The Etruscans came to Rome from Lydia (the region of Pergamos) bringing with them the Babylonian rituals, rites and relics. The Etruscan’s worshiped the god, satre who according to scholars is most certainly related to Saturn. Coincidentally, the first inhabitants of Italy were the Aborigines, who worshiped Saturnus. Hence, Rome and the Pergamos immigrants were theologically aligned in the mystery religion, worshiping the same false god – Saturn.
This Mystery Religion set up a pontiff in Rome which became the priesthood. It has always been the desire of mystery religions to control both the political and religious realms. This desire reached full fruition when the Romans accepted this pontiff as leader. Julius Caesar was made pontiff (Pontifex Maximus) of the Babylonian order in 74 B.C. Thus, the first Roman Emperor became the head of the Babylonian priesthood and Rome the successor of Babylon.
The terms, Pontifus Maximus, Vicar of Christ and Bishop of Bishops are all synonymous. They embody the antichrist spirit. All popes claim the title, Vicarius Christi a latin term, meaning, ‘Vicar of Christ.’ When translated into Greek however it literally means ‘Antichrist.’ The emperor Constantine, became a so-called ‘Christian’ in 313 A.D., and did so to unify the Roman Empire. Few realize he worshiped the sun God Apollos (on the facade of the Zeus altar) only a few years earlier, continued to head the pagan priesthood and endowed pagan temples long after he began to build Christian churches.
His sole aim was to achieve unity among the populace with an amalgamation of all gods under one system, of which Christianity was a part. The emperors continued to exercise the office of supreme pontiff until 376 A.D.. In 378 A.D., the head of the Babylonian order became the ruler of the Roman Church. Thus, Satan united Rome and Babylon in one religious system that continues unabated to the present day. Roman Catholicism is the personification of the ancient ecumenical Babylonian Religion.
Pagan Infiltration of the Catholic Church
Cardinal John Henry Newman confirmed the pomp and rituals of the Roman Church, “are all of pagan origin, and sanctified by their adoption into the Church.” There are some genuine followers of Christ within Roman Catholicism, no doubt, but they certainly do not represent the majority. God knows those who are His (2 Tim 2:19). Nevertheless, this does not discount the egregious false doctrines preached by Catholicism, which were the very spark which fueled the Protestant reformation.
Charles Spurgeon the highly influential prince of preachers once said, “No peace with Rome, war, war to the knife with her.” This encapsulates the ferocity with which we must make an ongoing purposeful defense of the Gospel of Christ (Jud 1:3, 1 Pet 3:15, 2 Cor 10:5), resisting any potential corruptions of its purity and simplicity.
“No peace with Rome, war, war to the knife with her.”
Charles Spurgeon (1834-1892)
English Baptist Preacher
A fierce opponent of Rome
The mystery religions earned their title due to the secretive initiation rites, new members underwent. In doing so, they obtained ‘secret knowledge’ only made available to the initiates. Before a member could be initiated, he had to confess all his sins to the priest. The priests would then use these sins as leverage against the initiate, should he step out of line. Freemasons have a similar initiation procedure. Confessional booths were a common occurrence in Babylon, where (arguably), the mystery religions began. Once initiated, these members were part of a brotherhood over whom was placed a pontiff or high priest who’s word was law.
Any religion outside of true Christianity falls into the category of a mystery religion as ultimately, they all lead people to damnation. Mystery Babylon is a cacophony of confusion, offering many false paths to salvation. Some of the Epistles were written to counter false teachings of the Gnostics (1st Jn 4:2) and Nicolaitans (Rev 2:15) that had already begun to creep into the early church. Jesus also warned of these apostates, “Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits” (Matthew 7:15–16). A wolf is merciless, devouring its prey with no hesitation. Being wrapped in sheep’s clothing makes these false teachers all the more dangerous. Only by knowing the doctrines of the Bible can we seek to avoid deception in these last days.
Jesus said nothing in secret
Jesus said, “I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing” (Jn 18:20). Christ preached an exclusive gospel, meaning those who reject Him are excluded from the Kingdoms of God and Heaven. However, ecumenicism encapsulates the modern mystery religions cloaked in secrecy or esoteric knowledge. Mystery religions house both esoteric (secret) and exoteric (common) knowledge, preaching an inclusive message, claiming all paths lead to the summit of salvation mountain. This is a lie. There is only one, ‘way,’ ‘truth’ and ‘life’ (Jn 14:6). There is only one Lord, one faith and one Baptism (Eph 4:4-6).
Mystery religions have abounded for millennia ever since its founder Nimrod. Initiates often took a vow of secrecy to their own detriment. They have flourished in Syria, Persia, Anatolia, Egypt, Greece and Rome. These false religions provided fierce competition with true Christianity in its formative years, as they do today. The dogma of mystery religions fall under the category of ‘another gospel’ , pointing toward ‘another Jesus,’ which we are warned about in scripture (2 Cor 11:4, Gal 1:6). Catholicism declares the keeping of ‘seven sacraments’ for eternal life, in a works-based system, all the while deferring saving grace in Christ, through faith (Eph 2:8-9). It therefore embodies the exoteric tenets of the mystery religions for the masses, but refrains from sharing all its secrets unless one is initiated into the priesthood (esoteric).
The False Trinity: Nimrod, Semiramis and Tammuz
Nimrod built the tower of Babel in defiance of God (Gen 11). Some claim his aim was to build a tower tall enough to avoid another deluge. Others contend Babel was a star-gate, with the purpose of accessing heaven, in order to overthrow God. This tower is being rebuilt today in the form of a one world government, unifying the church and state, something protestant reformers would despise. If you’d like to find out more about this tower, click here.
By marrying government with a national church, power becomes absolute, ensuring persecution for all those who oppose it. God desired nations to be separated so they could concentrate on seeking Him (Acts 17:26-27) but in defiance Nimrod’s heart was set on centralized power and oppression of the people. Evidently, global elitists, have taken up where Nimrod left off…(WEF anyone?)
Nimrod sought worship as a god (like Lucifer before him) and in doing so, angered the righteous seed in the earth. Few realize that Shem slew Nimrod. In a righteous act, Shem (the 10th generation from Adam) cut the despotic leader to pieces. So nefarious was Nimrod’s false religion, that he and his wife demanded human sacrifices, which were devoured by their priests. This desire for human sacrifice was sadly repeated in Israel’s history on several occasions. In righteous anger, Shem slew Nimrod for his despicable atrocities against humanity.
Nimrod’s wife (Semiramis) was grieved. Now that the self imposed god (Nimrod) was absent, she needed a means to retain power over the people. In her late husband’s absence, Semiramis resorted to fornicating outside wedlock, birthing a son, Tammuz. She claimed Tammuz was Nimrod reincarnated. To seal the ruse, she married her son (Tammuz/Nimrod), claiming the child was conceived through ‘immaculate conception.’ She asserted her son was ‘heaven sent’ and to be worshiped in place of her slain husband.
This false religion was based upon the Supreme Father (Nimrod), the Incarnate Female or Queen of Heaven (Semiramis), and her immaculate Son (Tammuz). It was the very inception of the mother goddess/son cult, later imitated by Isis, Horus & Osiris (Egypt), Isi & Iswara, (India), Shing Moo, the Holy Mother & her Son (China and Japan), Ashtoreth & Baal (Phoenicia), Ceres, Irene & Plutus (Greece) and Fortuna and Jupiter-puer (Rome). The reason many of these gods had multiple names is because when God scattered the nations in defiance of their rebellion, they took on new names in the languages of the native people.
The Catholic church merely replaced Semiramis (Queen of Heaven), with Mary (Mother of Jesus), esteeming her as co-redemptrix with Christ. The adoration of the ‘Holy Mother’ and her ‘immaculate son,’ were merely a replication of the ancient worship of the false gods, Semiramis and Tammuz. Worship of this false deity (Tammuz) angered God greatly in the time of Ezekiel (Eze 8:13-14) and is likely, one of the reasons, for the temple’s sudden destruction. Satan found in Tammuz the perfect alternative to the coming Christ who would eventually bruise his head (Gen 3:15). Nothing ultimately can or will stop the plan of God.
What exactly is Mystery Babylon the Great?
Let us now read Revelation 17:1-4, for an exposition of this mystery:
“1 And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters: 2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. 3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. 4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:”
The term, ‘many waters,’ may be symbolic of the vast populace under the whore’s influence, representing the nations under her jurisdiction. Rome has hundreds of fountains and nine aqueducts, sitting on the shores of the river Tiber. The Romans were masterful architects and engineers, spreading their knowledge of water distribution to the known world. Many aqueducts still stand in Roman provinces (including England). In like manner, the prophet Jeremiah described Babylon as having ‘many waters and abundant in treasure’ (Jer 51:13). Isaiah also called Babylon, ‘the lady of kingdoms’ (Isa 47:5). Fornication is spiritual mingling. This woman has an intimate spiritual relationship with something other than God.
This whore sits on the red beast (Rev 12) purveying his system and ordinance. Instead of giving allegiance to God, the whore fornicates with Satan, getting rich in the process.
The Vast Wealth of the Vatican
As of 2022, the wealth of the Catholic church was officially valued at $30 Billion dollars. Many consider this to be a vast underestimate of her true fortune. The Vatican is also the second largest land owner in the world, having 716 thousand square kilometers across the globe. If this isn’t a church heavily involved in commerce, then what is? It’s most assuredly decked to the halls with ‘gold, precious stones and pearls.’
The triple crown or triple tiara, first worn by Ptolemy Philometer upon entering Antioch, Syria as conqueror was acquiesced by Rome and present at the installation ceremonies of hundreds of popes, along with a vest covered with pearls and precious stones. The triple tiara was also worn by Bishops from 1314 until 1963, along with the Assyrian winged bull cherubim. This hat is one of many artifacts and symbols of paganism that have been sequestered into Roman Catholicism, along with the Dagon fish miter (see below), Fleur de Lis, Maltese Cross, Hissop cups, six-pointed star of Hermes, Siruius Dog-star symbol, Mithra hat and Poseidon Shell, amongst many others.
The Golden Cup (Rev 17:4)
In the Catholic Jubilee of 1825, Pope Leo XII struck out a medal honoring himself, with his church pictured as a woman holding a golden cup in her hand. The image bore the inscription, Sedit Super Universum meaning, ‘the whole world is her seat.’ From time immemorial, a woman with a golden cup in her hand always represented the worship of Baal. This image has been embossed upon many Roman coins down the years.
Thousands of golden cups are used in Catholic churches all around the globe to carry out the ‘transubstantiation mystery,’ where the wafer and wine become the ‘literal’ body and blood of Christ. Of course, Christ spoke figuratively when He instructed us to remember His sacrifice. Anything more than this symbolic remembrance is indeed hocus pocus. Babylon was also described as a ‘golden cup’ in the lord’s hand,’ hence the connection with Rome (Jer 51:7). The Dagon fish miter, (aka the crown of Astarte) has also been acquired as part of the pomp and ritual of modern day Catholicism.
The woman who rides the beast, is arrayed in purple and scarlet (Rev 17:4). These were the traditional garbs of the Roman Caesars. They were also the colors of the robes which the Roman soldiers, used to mock Christ as ‘King’ (Matt 17:28, Jn 19:2,5). In addition, they also serve as the official colors of Pagan Rome and the present-day cardinal robes.
“5 And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH. 6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration. 7 And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.“
John Dowling the famous historian in his work, “History of Romanism” (1871), reveals the extent of bloodshed via the Catholic inquisition, to be “fifty million of the human family.” These slaughters occurred under the banner of ‘heresy’ by popish persecutors seeking to root out bible believers for an entire millennia. This equates to more than 40,000 murders for every year of the popery’s existence. Based on these statistics, undoubtedly the imagery of this woman being ‘drunk on the blood of saints and martyrs,’ is particularly accurate. The aforementioned ten horns or kings did not exist in the time of John, but will soon receive authority and do the will of the Antichrist.
St Peters Basilica: An edifice of abomination
In Revelation 18:4, Christ warns His people to ‘come out of her.’ Why such a stern warning? Because this harlot has deceived even Christians in her idolatrous religious practices. She is described as a well heeled queen, seeking to glorify herself, “How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: For she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, And am no widow, and shall see no sorrow” (Rev 18:7).
This queen of Heaven, worshiped as the perpetual virgin Mary, is none other than the relabeling of the Roman goddess Diana. It is interesting to note, the word ‘queen’ here in verse seven, is ‘basilissa’ (βασίλισσα), in the original Greek (pronounced bas-il-is-sah). From this Greek word we derive the Latin term ‘basilica.’ Roman basilica’s served as juridical or administrative centers and most often referred to buildings that housed royal courts of law.
In essence, Mystery Babylon says in her heart, ‘I sit a bascilica.’ The truth is hidden in plain sight and Mystery Babylon has revealed her true identity from the confines of a royal dome in central Italy.
The Price of Purgatory
Few realize this edifice is an abomination to God and built by the guilty consciences of people deceived by the great Harlot, believing payment to the Priests, would grant their relatives an escape from purgatory and access to heaven. This is the epitome of religious manipulation and characteristic of a Harlot. Pope Leo X sanctioned indulgences to pay for St Peter’s Basilica, during the lifetime of Martin Luther (1483-1546), who vehemently opposed its practice, in the 16th century. Johann Tetzel, a priest hired by Pope Leo X to expedite the building project utilized indulgences or the bill of receipt, for escaped souls from purgatory.
Throughout Germany, the singsongy phrase of Tetzel went forth, “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
There is no depth, to the depravity of priests who preyed on the biblical illiteracy of the common people, during the middle ages. These innocent people had a hunger and thirst for God, but did not possess God’s Word for themselves. Because of this, they were ripe for deception and Satan took full advantage.
The New World Order birthed by the Club of Rome
On September 17th 1973, the Club of Rome published a highly confidential report called, the “Regionalized and Adaptive Model of the Global World System” (Mihaljo Mesarovic and Edward Pestel) which was sent to the power elite of the world, in order to be implemented. The dossier revealed the Club has divided the world into ten political/economic regions, which it refers to as ‘kingdoms’ (equivalent to ‘horns’ in our study passage – Rev 13:1-2).
The Club of Rome during the early 70’s, launched the framework for the coming one world government which is now in full swing under the guise of Agenda 2030, carbon credits, global warming initiatives, New Age-earth-centric worship and ecumenicism, spearheaded by the World Economic Forum, closely monitored by the Vatican and her minions.
The City on Seven Hills: Romulus and Rome
“And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space” (Rev 17:9-10).
Scripture is clear the idolatrous Babylonian whore sits on seven mountains. The seven hills or mountains of Rome are well documented. Encyclopedia Britannica states the original city of Romulus, which became the city of Rome, was built upon seven mountains. The first was Palatine Hill. The other hills are Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelin, and Aventine. No other city in the world, matches this precise description.
The Catholic Encyclopedia states, “It is within the city of Rome, called the city of seven hills, that the entire area of Vatican State proper is now confined.”
Rome: Ready to be revived in the near future
The seven kings represent the seven world empires which have opposed God throughout the annals of history. These include: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome. The seventh and final kingdom will be a world empire, encompassing nation states from the Revived Roman Empire, reaching full maturation, during the tribulation period. The Roman empire covered vast territory and controlled the known world at the time, merging religion with politics, as it has done from its founding.
The Eastern wing of the Roman Empire also contained many of the modern Islamic nations, which incidentally are theologically aligned in many ways, with Roman Catholicism, as both Islam and Catholicism, share the common bond of idolatry. Many evangelicals are seeking to unite Christianity and Islam, under one banner, called, ‘Chris-lam.’ This is yet another mark of apostasy, and a doctrine of demons (1st Tim 4:1), scripture warned us about, in the latter days.
Are you saved by God’s grace or following the crowd in a religious system, that promises salvation through participation in sacraments, penance, good works, suffering for one’s sins and the sins of others here, or in purgatory, indulgences to reduce time in purgatory, endless masses or Rosaries?
Catholicism is the antithesis of the gospel of grace (Acts 20:24), and sends men and women to eternal damnation…Come out from among her!
You still have time to escape the Golden Cup before God judges it!
Have you believed on the Lord Jesus Christ? If not, click here to find out more…
Author – Carl G.M. Joseph
Ronald F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, and R. K. Harrison, Thomas Nelson Publishers, eds., Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1995).
Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylon’s (1858), pp.63-64.
Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylon’s (1858), pp.231-232.
Dr. Peter S. Ruckman – The Reference Bible (Bible Baptist Bookstore, Pensacola, FL)
Barton Warren Johnson, The People’s New Testament: With Explanatory Notes (St. Louis, MO: Christian Publishing Company, 1891), Re 17:13.
Geneva Bible: Notes, vol. 2 (Geneva: Rovland Hall, 1560), 120.
Finis Jennings Dake, Dake’s Topics (WORDsearch, 1991).
Vincent’s Word Studies in the New Testament (Marvin R. Vincent D.D. Volume II) Peabody, MA 2009, pp. 446.
Justinus, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, trans. Rev. J.S. Watson (1853), vol. 43, p. 3)
John H. Newman, An Essay On The Development Of Christian Doctrine, (London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1878), p. 373.
The Jesuits and the Counter Reformation (A Noise of Thunder Audio Presentation-Digital Audio CD 2 Disc Set) – Chris J. Pinto
Babylon Religion: How a Babylonian goddess became the Virgin Mary – David W. Daniels (Chick Publications)
Dispensational Truth: God’s Plan and Purpose in the Ages (Clarence Larkin) Whitaker House, New Kensington, PA. 2020
Masonic and Occult Symbols Illustrated – Dr. Cathy Burns (Sharing Publications, Mt Carmel, PA. 1998, 9th Edition)
A. W. Fortune, “Babylon in the NT,” ed. James Orr et al., The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company, 1915), 358.
A Woman Rides the Beast – Dave Hunt (Harvest House Publishers, Eugene OR, 1994)
God’s and Generals: The Roaring Reformers – Roberts Liardon (Whitaker House Publishing, New Kensington, PA, 2003), 139.
The Wine of Babylon – Professor Walter Veith (Amazing Discoveries – DVD)
A Woman Rides the Beast – Professor Walter Veith (Amazing Discoveries – DVD)
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