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Who is Lucifer?

Carl is a biblical scholar, minister, husband, father and life coach. In his mid-twenties he had a powerful encounter with God and saw miraculous healings as a result. He passionately shares these stories and empowers others to fulfill their God-given potential.

We first become familiar with Lucifer, when God created the earth. The precise age of the earth is unknown to us, but scripture reveals the angels of God witnessed its creation. The earth as it stands today was created in six days (with ‘days’ consisting of 24-hr periods) but scripture reveals the earth was subject to a cataclysm prior to its current state (Gen 1:2). Lucifer (a cherub) was one of the angels who witnessed earth’s creation, along with the other, ‘sons of God.’ Perhaps Lucifer’s jealousy of God started on this very day:

“Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said, 2 Who is this that darkeneth counsel By words without knowledge? 3 Gird up now thy loins like a man; For I will demand of thee, and answer thou me. 4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare, if thou hast understanding. 5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? Or who hath stretched the line upon it? 6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? Or who laid the corner stone thereof; 7 When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?”
Job 38:1–7

The Angels of God witnessed the Earth’s creation, long before man came upon the scene.

From a whirlwind, God rebukes Job’s ignorance, stating ‘all the sons of God’ witnessed the earth’s foundation being laid, long before he was on the scene (Job 38:1-7). The term, ‘sons of God’ is found six times in the Old Testament. In every instance it refers to angels, not man. In the New Testament, it’s meaning reverts to the ‘righteous,’ who believe upon the Lord Jesus Christ. In this dispensation, we are the sons of God, awaiting the coming of our Lord, For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God” (Rom 8:14). If you have faith in Christ, then you are a son of God. However, in the Old Testament, the term, ‘son of God’ had an entirely different meaning, referring solely to the angelic realm.

In the ages past, Lucifer was judged along with the earth, which became ‘without form and void‘ (Gen 1:2). He was cast down to the earth following his failed attempt to usurp God (Luk 10:18). He then tempted Adam and Eve, granting him temporary lease of the earth and the accompanying dominion (Acts 26:16-18). This would justify the claim Satan made to Christ, that the ‘kingdoms of this world’ were already in his possession and would be granted to Jesus, if He paid Satan homage (Mat 4:8-9). Because this was one of three genuine temptations in the Judean wilderness, Satan was not lying in this particular instance. Christ did not refute his rightful claim to the kingdoms of the world, at the time. But times change, and the cross changed everything.

What does Lucifer mean?

Lucifer comes from a Latin derivation for ‘morning star’ or ‘light bearer.’ The Latin term refers to the planet Venus appearing in the evening and the morning, which is the brightest in the sky except for the sun and moon. It’s important to realize that ‘Lucifer,’ (Isa 14:12), has been slowly disappearing from modern bible translations. The King James Bible (1611-AV), New King James version (NKJV), and Modern English Version (MEV), all mention Lucifer, but he’s conspicuously absent from the NASV, NIV, NRSV, NCV, ESV, RSV, NLT, LIV and most other modern Bibles.

Is this a coincidence or part of a conspiracy? The ESV and RSV go so far as calling Lucifer, the ‘Day Star’, which is a blasphemous moniker, because ‘Day star’ is one of the names of our Lord Jesus Christ (2nd Pet 1:19). This is but one example where modern bible versions have taken liberty (under the banner of textual criticism), to ‘alter’ God’s word, from its original meaning. In addition, hell has been removed from modern translations, replaced with ‘sheol,’ ‘the grave’ or ‘hades,’ which has no meaning to the reader. Click here to find out more about corrupt modern day bible versions.

Lucifer comes from the Latin term for ‘light bearer’ (akin to the planet Venus)

According to Scripture, Satan was originally Lucifer, (literally ’light bearer’), the most glorious of the angels. He is a cherub, not an archangel (as some surmise). It should be noted, the illumination he offers is salvation through knowledge, rather than by grace, through faith in Christ (Eph 2:8-9). Knowledge based salvation is a doctrine which originated with the Gnostic’s and is also taught by modern-day free-masons. Smarts will never save you, only Jesus can.

Occultists like to use the term, ‘illuminated,’ referring to their pious but false pretense of knowledge providing a means to eternal life. In fact, the Devil, Satan, Lucifer, Serpent and Dragon, are all synonymous names for the same malevolent cherub. I will use these names interchangeably from now on. It’s important to remember that Lucifer is merely an angel. The common belief of many is that He’s on equal footing with God. This is like comparing Everest to a mole hill. Besides, Jesus defeated Lucifer at the cross, so the war is over (more on this shortly).

Leviathan- The piercing and crooked serpent (Isa 27:1; Ps 74)

Lucifer is particularly religious and a proponent of all false doctrines. His agents often pose as ‘ministers of righteousness’ (2 Cor 11:15).  The theme of Lucifer as light bearer, is carried through to the NT where Satan is described as ‘an angel of light’ (2 Cor 11:14). I firmly believe it was this mysterious, alluring light that first enticed Eve toward the נָחָשׁ nâchâsh (serpent), in the Garden of Eden. Satan is described as a ‘serpent’ in his cursed form, yet Seraphim (a type of angel) are also described as having serpentine qualities. This serpentine quality is further compounded, when Satan is described as a ‘dragon’ in the book of Revelation (Rev 12:9). Another metaphor for Satan is Leviathan, the ‘piercing’ and ‘crooked serpent’ (Isa 27:1, Ps 74), having multiple heads, cruel and cunning. Does Lucifer have the ability to shape shift? Descriptions of him, take on many forms. Let’s explore some of them now.

What does Lucifer look like?

By process of elimination and inference we can ascertain what Lucifer looks like today, from the biblical text. He was described as a cherub originally (Eze 28:14) and a red dragon with serpentine qualities in a future time frame (Rev 12:3). By reviewing chapters one and ten of Ezekiel, we have a parallel description of the four living creatures in heaven. We know Lucifer (the cherub) has fallen, hence the inference there were originally five living creatures, or that one of the four living creatures replaced Lucifer when he fell. Consider, the description of the four creatures:

As for the likeness of their faces, each had the face of a man, and all four had the face of a lion on the right side, and the face of an ox on the left side, and the face of an eagle. 11 Thus were their faces. And their wings were stretched upward. Two wings of every one were joined to one another, and two covered their bodies.“ (Ezekiel 1:10-11)

The four living creatures (Rev 4:7-10)

Notice these creatures describe the four classes of creation on the earth presently and are referenced in Revelation 4:7-10:

1. Humans
2. Wild animals (Lion)
3. Domesticated animals (Ox)
4. Flying animals (Eagle)

Ezekiel chapter ten offers further insight into these mysterious ‘living creatures’: “Each one had four faces. The first face was the face of a cherub, the second face was the face of a man, the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle” (Ezekiel 10:14–16).

Notice the first creature has the face of a cherub. By referring to Ezekiel 1:10, the face of the cherub was that of an ox, as the other three living creatures are identical in these passages (i.e. man, lion and eagle). It may be presumed that Satan has the face of an ox, having horns and cloven feet, having been identified as a cherub in this latter chapter of Ezekiel. Interestingly the false god, Molech matches this precise description. It is also similar to the description of Baphomet, having horns with the head of a goat.

Molech– Canaanite ‘god’ with the head of an Ox, similar to the description of Baphomet

Perhaps Molech is the most accurate visual representation of Satan in his present form. Molech is mentioned eight times in the Holy Bible, as a Canaanite or Moabite deity. Solomon’s Ammonite wives influenced him to build a shrine to Molech near Jerusalem (1 Kngs 11:1-5). Sadly, children were ‘passed through the fire’ as part of a sacrificial act, in the valley of Hinnom. This practice continued during the reigns of King Manasseh and Ahaz (2 Kgs 16:3, 21:6, 1 Chr 28:3, 33:6, Jer 9:26, 32:35). Only Satan could inspire ancient kings to do such baneful acts, however the abortion mills of today continue this practice.

But what is missing from the four classes of creation, depicted by the living creatures? The aquatic and reptilian class. When Lucifer fell, he was likely part of this aquatic/reptilian class which is no longer mentioned among the living creatures in heaven. Is there scriptural evidence of Satan linked to the aquatic realm? Indeed there is: “In that day the Lord with His fierce and great and strong sword shall punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, even Leviathan the twisted serpent; and He shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.” (Isaiah 27:1) Therefore, Lucifer is likely a part of the aquatic class (which fell), having serpentine qualities (Leviathan) and is described as being ‘broken into pieces’:

Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: Thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. 14 Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, And gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness” (Psalm 74:13-14 – 13).

Considering man has only explored approximately 5% of the oceans, the tales of sea serpents or dragons, may be accurate. Some of this speech may be figurative of course, but once again, we must not overlook the possibility that Satan can change form. Many people often ask, “is Lucifer the devil?” or “Is Satan Lucifer?” Indeed these are synonymous terms because Lucifer goes by many names and titles. Let me share some of them with you now…

The 6 names and titles of Lucifer

  1. Satan – literally, ‘adversary’ (mentioned 56 times in the Holy Writ, 37 times in the NT).
  2. The Devil – literally, ‘slanderer’ (Gen 3:2-5, Rev 12:10, Job 1:9, Zech 3:1-2, Luk 22:31).
  3. The Destroyer – The devil sees himself as a destroyer-god of all that God created. This term is embodied in ‘Apollyon’ and ‘Abaddon’ (Rev 9:11).
  4. Serpent – The serpent was utilized to bring about man’s downfall (Rev 12:9, Gen 2-3).
  5. Tempter – God tests men for their good, to purify and develop character but the devil tempts man for the malicious design of destroying them (Matt 4:3).
  6. Prince and god of this world – (Jn 12:31, 2 Cor 4:4) The evil one has influence over this world, because of the dominion that Adam granted him at the fall. The whole world lies in wickedness as a result (1st Jn 5:19). The world, or ‘cosmos,’ judges’ things by the exterior false maxims of pleasure, wealth and materialistic refinement. We are told not to ‘love this world’ (1st Jn 2:15).

Throughout the Bible, Satan desires to thwart God’s plan. Satan inspired Ishmael’s opposition to Isaac, Esau’s attempt to kill Jacob and Pharaohs oppression of the Israelite’s. Satan has been the inspiration for innumerable genocides through despotic governments during the 20th century. World leaders such as Hitler, Lennon, Stalin, Mussolini and Pol Pot etc. have wreaked havoc on humanity, in direct opposition to God. When it comes to the church, Satan seeks to destroy it, either by introduction of false teaching (1 Tim 4:1) or by persecution (Rev 2:10). Satan’s modus-operandi is to ‘steal, kill and destroy’ (Jn 10:10). He was also a liar from the beginning and is the ‘father of lies’ (Jn 8:44).

Lucifer is a counterfeiter

Lucifer is the great imitator of Christ. He’s a counterfeiter because he has nothing authentic to offer. His actions in the tribulation period will reflect his desire to be the false king of kings. Let’s examine the evidence:

  1. Jesus is the “KING OF KINGS” (Rev. 19). Satan is “king over all the children of pride” (Job 41).
  2. Jesus is the “angel of the God” (Gal. 4:14). Satan appears as an “angel of light” (2 Cor. 11:11–14).
  3. God is light, and in him is no darkness at all” (1 John 1:5). Satan appears as an “angel of light” (2 Cor. 11:11–14)
  4. Jesus is “God…manifest in the flesh” (1 Tim. 3:16). Satan is the “god” of this world (2 Cor. 4:4).
  5. Christ has a bride, who is a city (Rev. 21:9). Satan has a bride who is a city (Rev. 17:1–9).
  6. Jesus cites the Scripture in conflict (Luke 4:1–12). Satan cites the Scripture in conflict (Luke 4:10–11).
  7. Christ preaches forty-two months (Luke 3:23; John 2:13, 5:1, 6:4, 12:1). The Beast preaches forty-two months (Rev. 13:5).
  8. Christ means “Anointed” (Christos, Messiah) (Acts 4:26, Psa. 2:2). Satan is “anointed.”
  9. God desires worship (John 4:23-26). Satan desires worship (Matt. 4:8–10).

Why was Lucifer cast out of heaven?

Lucifer’s ambition is well documented, in the Book of Isaiah. Although the following passage describes the earthly king of Babylon, it’s obvious there are spiritual parallels. Babylon became a ghost town by the seventh century AD, as Isaiah prophesied (Isa 13:19-22). God used Babylon as a judgment tool for Israel, but He later judged Babylon also. Let’s review the passage together:

12 “How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! 13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: 14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most-High. 15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
Isaiah 14:12–15

Jesus witnessed Lucifer being ’cut down to the ground,’ ‘like lightening’ (Luk 10:18). The Hebrew word ‘cut,’ גָּדַע (gā·ḏǎʿ), is to ’cause a downward linear movement,’ or to ‘cast down’ forcibly and suddenly, just as Jesus described. In doing so, Lucifer was no longer granted access to the Heavenly Holy Mountain. Just as Adam and Eve were cast out of the garden of Eden, so too was Lucifer from the Heavenly Eden (see Eze 28:13-16). Lucifer has struggled with an identity crisis since his expulsion because he was created to bear God’s light (i.e., light bearer). As a consequence of his fall, his purpose was lost forever, and he’s been left in the darkness ever since. When Lucifer was cast down, he took a third of the angels with him (Rev 12:4-9).

Lucifer falls like lightening (Luke 10:18)

Any king or angel that dares to usurp God’s authority will be punished, and Lucifer’s drubbing came when Christ defeated him on the cross. The Book of Job reveals, Satan still had access to heaven itself, during the Old Testament period (Job 1:6). No wonder he’s ticked off. Some scholars suggest this passage infers a pre-adamic race because verse twelve mentions ‘nations’ that were weakened by Lucifer’s treasonous act. We can only speculate. Regardless, Isaiah 14:15 and Revelation 20:10, makes it clear, his final destination will be Hell (lake of fire).

The 5 ‘I will’s’ of Lucifer

This passage (Isa 14:12-15) underlines Lucifer’s futile ambition, in five distinct exaltation’s:

  1. I will ascend into heaven.
  2. I will exalt my throne above the stars of God.
  3. I will sit upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north.
  4. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds.
  5. I will be like the most High.

Lucifer’s mutinous ambition was completely annulled by Christ’s death, burial and resurrection. Lucifer originally desired godhood and all that would entail. Christ fortified his godhood by triumphing over Lucifer, once and for all. Jesus now has the keys to ‘Death and Hell’ (Rev 1:18).

The 5 ‘been there and done that’s’ of Jesus Christ

  1. Jesus ascended into heaven (Act 1:6-12).
  2. Jesus is exalted (Isa 45:23-24).
  3. He will rule from His throne upon mt Zion and we are His congregation (1st Pet 2:6).
  4. He is currently seated at the right hand of God, far above the clouds (Heb 10:11-14).
  5. He is the ‘most-high Son of God (Luk 8:28).

Lucifer’s insurrection was seeded by his desire for exaltation on par with the creator, i.e., to be worshiped like God. His envy of Jesus, no doubt motivated his attempt to dethrone our Savior before His public ministry got underway (Matt 4:1-11). Within the tribulation period, he will make another insurgence, in the guise of the unholy trinity, namely: Satan, the Antichrist and false prophet.

Lucifer’s role in the Heavenly Eden

The Book of Ezekiel further expounds upon Lucifer’s job description. In Ezekiel’s day, the king of Tyre was Ethbaal II (“Baal is with him”), a clever man who amassed great power and wealth. His subjects were known as the Phoenicians. Tyre was an island off the Mediterranean coastline, approximately 100 miles from Israel and a shipping dynasty. However, God was about to judge the king, serving as a typology for Lucifer’s downfall. Although this passage of scripture initially describes judgment of an earthly king, it soon becomes obvious, the context refers to the spiritual realm.

Ethbaal II was later executed by the Babylonians after a thirteen-year siege. Up to this point, cherubim are already mentioned in chapters one and ten of Ezekiel.  The people of Tyre were familiar with these glorious angelic beings, having a number of ivory carvings of cherubim in their places of worship. Baal was apparently portrayed as a cherub in some of their temples:

13 “Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.

14 Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the Holy Mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.
15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.

An artist’s rendition of the Holy Mountain of God

16 By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore, I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

17 Your heart was filled with pride because of all your beauty. Your wisdom was corrupted by your love of splendor. So, I threw you to the ground and exposed you to the curious gaze of kings.” (Ezekiel 28:13–16)

Evidently, Lucifer had a prominent ministerial role in the Heavenly Eden, with an inference that he ‘covered,’ God’s presence upon the Holy Mountain, until he was banished forever. Did God go one step too far when creating Lucifer? I say this because Lucifer was adorned with precious stones and ‘perfect in his ways.’ Did Lucifer spend too much time, gazing at his own reflection? Was he enamored with himself? Hasn’t beauty always been a source of pride or corruption for many of us?

The mysterious stones of fire

Notice there are nine precious stones, which adorned Lucifer’s apparel and served as his covering. These stones are also listed amongst the twelve ephod stones of the Levitical priest’s garb (Ex 28:17-21). These same exact stones are also found in the foundational walls of heaven (Rev 21:19-20). Interestingly, each stone of God’s ephod represented a tribe of Israel. Yet three of the stones are missing from Lucifer’s covering, namely, jacinth (sapphire), agate and amethyst. These missing stones are representative of the tribes of Gad, Asher and Issachar. Scholars are unclear as to the precise reason for their omission from Lucifer’s covering. I contend that sapphire is missing because this is the foundation stone of God’s throne (Eze 1:26) and Lucifer has no semblance of, or access to it.

The 12 stones of the Ephod (Each represents a tribe of Israel)

Jewish tradition posits that God created a covering of stones for Adam and Eve. We do know the stones in the Heavenly Mountain, shone like fire, causing Lucifer’s illumination, hence the term, ‘light bearer.’ Lucifer is described as an ‘anointed covering cherub,’ in a similar fashion to the cherubim guarding God’s presence upon the ark of the covenant. The existence of pipes in his garb purports to his masterful musicianship.

This could explain his vast influence over the modern-day music industry and the filth it purveys. He has witnessed the power that music has over the masses and manipulates them for his own glory. Some musicians have even sold their souls for temporal fame and fortune. The bells of Hell will toll, and its gates are wide open for every fool who willfully gives his soul to the devil for temporal gain in this lifetime. It just isn’t worth it. No-one saw a hearse pull a U-Haul, you enter this world with nothing, and you leave with nothing.

Iniquity was found ‘in’ Lucifer

God originally created Lucifer for good and granted him a ministerial role in His Heavenly Eden. Everything was fine, until iniquity was found in him (Eze 28:14). The Apostle Paul describes iniquity as a mysterious force at work in the children of disobedience (2nd Thess 2:7). Iniquity is the driving force behind every work of evil. Evil was not created, but is the absence of good. Evil did not begin in the Garden of Eden; it was present long before the creation of this earth, as the angelic kingdom was corrupted first. Evil rides on the back of selfishness. Whenever we resist God’s will, we become susceptible to evil.

The manifestation of iniquity always hinges upon personal choice, because choice always wins. Angels are free moral agents as we are and they chose to rebel against God, just like our forefathers did. Lucifer led one third of the angelic host in revolt against God (Rev 12:4). The sons of God also chose to commit a most heinous crime by fornicating with the daughters of men to produce a race of angel-man hybrids, namely ‘giants’ (Gen 6:1-2). This is controversial, but the truth, nonetheless. These accounts are well documented within Apocalyptic and Historical literature (1st Enoch, Jubilees, Jasher etc.) in addition to the writings of the early church fathers. The angelic kingdom is responsible for much of the evil we see unleashed in the earth. This will reach a crescendo in the tribulation period.

Lucifer gets his teeth smashed out!

Our God is a ‘God of war’ (Lord of Sabaoth-Rom 9:29). He is not to be trifled with. Jesus eagerly awaited the day when He could visit Hell and defeat the devil openly, in full view of his demonic army. This Jesus did convincingly via His death, burial and resurrection:

Colossians 2:15 –And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.” (KJV)

Colossians 2:15 – “In this way, he disarmed the spiritual rulers and authorities. He shamed them publicly by his victory over them on the cross.” (NLT)

The enemy is only able to escape when you take your foot off his head.

Satan is disarmed and offers no threat to the Christian. Jesus’ triumph also restricted Satan’s access to God’s throne. Because salvation has come through Christ, and Satan has been cast down, he no longer has access to the throne of God, where he accused our brethren day and night (Rev 12:10). He was humiliated that resurrection day to such an extent, he still feels the sting of his wounds.  Since resurrection day, two thousand years ago, there has never been any doubt, as to the true identity of the master of the universe; namely Jesus Christ. Satan has no authority over the believer. He can only gain access to us through ignorance, deception or willful sin. To the unredeemed however, Satan still lords it over them.

Pride and ambition still consume Satan, desiring worship (Mat 4:9), as ‘god of this world’ (2 Cor 4:4), an ambition which will become temporarily satisfied when he incarnates the Antichrist (Rev 13:4). Satan uses the weak minded as his pawns for the practice of witchcraft, which is strictly forbidden in Scripture (Lev 19:31). But they too will be cast into the lake of fire. Many witches falsely believe Lucifer will reward them in the afterlife for their efforts, but it’s God who has the power to cast them into Hell, not Lucifer (Lk 12:5). Satan despises anyone created in God’s image, witches and warlocks included. There will be no mercy offered by the devil once their last breath is drawn, even though they might’ve served him their entire lives.

The 6 abodes of Lucifer

  1. The Throne of God – Eze 28:11-16; Job 1 (no longer accessible)
  2. The Mineral Garden of Eden – Eze 28:16-17 (no longer accessible)
  3. The Atmospheric Heavens – Eph 2:2; Eph 6:12 (current abode)
  4. The Earth – Gen 2-3; Rev 12; Job 1 (current abode)
  5. The Abyss – Rev 20:1-3 (impending)
  6. The Lake of Fire – Rev 20:7-10 (impending)

Cancel your appointment with Lucifer

Notice, Hell is absent from this list (above). Jesus now possesses the keys to Death and Hell (Rev 1:18). Does Lucifer need to visit the spiritual prisoners already under his jurisdiction? Probably not. We know Hell was created for the devil and demon forces (Matt 25:41) and you will go there as an intruder. Satan still roams freely upon the earth and in the atmospheric heavens, until the kingdoms of this world become the Kingdoms of our Lord (Rev 11:15). His final destination will be the Lake of Fire, following the millennial reign of Christ (Rev 20:10). This will be your final destination also, unless you chart a new course.

It’s imperative that you cancel your reservation for Hell today. Click here for the most important podcast you’ll ever listen to in your lifetime.

Have you believed on the Lord Jesus Christ? If not, click here to find out more…

Author – Carl G.M. Joseph

Bibliography:

Myer Pearlman Knowing the Doctrines of the Bible – Pentecostal Classics – Gospel Publishing House, Springfield, Missouri (1937-25th Edition, revised 2010).

Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, The Messianic Bible Study Collection, vol. 1 (Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries, 1983), 15–16.

Walter A. Elwell and Barry J. Beitzel, “Ammon, Ammonites,” Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988), 72.

Dr. Peter S. Ruckman – The Mark of the Beast – BB Bookstore (Kindle Edition).

Layman’s Bible Commentary – Isaiah thru Ezekiel – Volume 6 (Barbour Publishing, Ohio, 2010).

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