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The Names of God: Part 2

Carl is a biblical scholar, minister, husband, father and life coach. In his mid-twenties he had a powerful encounter with God and saw miraculous healings as a result. He passionately shares these stories and empowers others to fulfill their God-given potential.

This is the second article regarding the Names of God. In our previous article we highlighted eight key names of God in the Old Testament, but there are actually, twenty major names, with a further eleven being less prominent. If you haven’t read part one, click here…

A study of the compound redemptive names of Jehovah in the Old Testament unfolds the glories of our covenant-al and redemptive God. Each of these names, relative to man’s needs find their ultimate fulfillment in the New Testament. It is divinely suitable that the redemptive names of God find their consummation in the Redeemer Himself (Jesus). For a complete list of the names and titles of Jesus Christ, click here…

Each time God revealed His name, He gave us a promise to stand on. Take the time to look them up in the Bible for yourself and read the passage in context. That way you will feel more confident in God’s ability to intervene on your behalf, no matter what situation you might be struggling with. Jesus is bigger than any problem you have…He’s got you covered!

The 20 Major Names of God in the Old Testament

  1. YAHWEH or Jehovah אֶהְיֶה The Redemptive Name of God (I AM that I AM, I will be, who I will be) – Exodus 3:14-16 & 6:2-3. His eternal name, for us to remember for all generations. God reveals Himself to Moses, as the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. He is a covenant keeping God who keeps His promises today. Every subsequent name begins with YAWHEH.
  2. Jehovah Elohim אֶהְיֶה אֱֱלֹהִים? (The Lord, our Creator) Genesis 2:4 – Creator of the heavens, earth, angelic realm and mankind. All things were created by and through Him. Though angels and mankind were later corrupted by sin, they were not created that way. Angels were witness to the earth’s creation and shouted for joy upon its completion (Job 38:7).  Sin has negatively impacted all facets of creation; even the earth groans for redemption as we yearn for our glorified bodies (Rom 8:20).
  3. Jehovah El Elyon אֶהְיֶה אֵל (The Lord, the Most-High, Owner) Genesis 14:22 – Abram swears before the King of Sodom, that the most-High God has given him the ability to gain wealth and then bargains for his allies to be granted the spoils of war. Abram is quick to Honor God for his exploits and give Him the glory of victory. Abram knew the importance of giving God the glory and was strong in faith because of it (Rom 4:20).
  4. Jehovah Adonia אֶהְיֶה אֲדֹנָי (The Lord, the Master) Genesis 15:2 – The Lord spoke to Abram in a vision, promising to protect and reward Him. In response, Abram replies ‘sovereign Lord’ (Adonai). For those in Christ, He is our Lord and Master. He watches over us in His divine providence and showers us with His many blessings. Many have made Jesus’ savior but not everyone has made him lord.
  5. Jehovah El Olam אֶהְיֶה עֹלָם (The Lord, the Everlasting) Genesis 21:33 – Abram makes a covenant with Abimelech, dedicating his loyalty to him and his country.  After swearing an oath and worshipping to the ‘eternal God,’ Abram offers seven lambs and a well, sealing his part of the covenant.
  6. Jehovah Jireh יְהוָֹה יִרְאֶה (The Lord, the Provider) Genesis 22:14 – This name commemorates the provision of the ram in place of Isaac for Abraham’s sacrifice. The Lord is our provider, He will provide for you. You need to trust Him for your provision. You can rest assured as you sow seed and tithe your income, God will provide for you. Just as Abraham was willing to sacrifice, He sees your sacrifice and will honor it.  You cannot reap a harvest, unless you’ve sown seed. Seed, time and harvest will never cease.
  7. Jehovah Rapha אֶהְיֶה יְהוָֹה (The Lord, the Healer) Exodus 15:26 – appears when Israel is assured that God, their healer, will prevent the diseases of Egypt from affecting Israel. Although the name is only used once in scripture, God was often called upon and praised as ‘the healing One’ (e.g., Ps 103:3; Is 30:26; Jer 6:14 etc.).  Our God has and always will be a healing God. With the name of Jesus Christ in our arsenal, we are able to resist sickness and command it to leave our physical flesh (Mk 16:17-18).
  8. Jehovah Nissi יְהוָֹה נִסִּי (The Lord, the Banner of Victory) Exodus 17:15 – It’s the name that Moses called on when he built an altar celebrating Israel’s God-given victory over the Amalekites. Isaiah uses the term nissi when speaking of the coming Messiah who is to be the conqueror (Is 11:10; 59:19). A banner was a large piece of cloth attached by one edge to a staff and used by a monarch or leader as his standard in battle. The Lord has His banner draped over you. He has gone before you and won the battle already.
  9. Jehovah Makaddeshkem אֶהְיֶה קָדַשׁ (The Lord, our Sanctification) Exodus 31:13 – After commissioning Israel to keep the Sabbath, God reminds His people, He is the Lord who makes us Holy. The Sabbath day is holy in God’s sight and the earth was to enjoy its sabbath (Lev 26:34; 1 Chron 36:21). We are commanded in the NT, ‘to be Holy, as I am Holy.’ Our spirit man is made holy instantaneously by the blood of the lamb, when we believe on the Lord Jesus Christ. However, our soul (mind, will and emotions), must be conformed to God’s Word on an ongoing basis which is our choice to be holy.
  10. Jehovah Shalom יְהוָֹה שָׁלוֹם (The Lord, our Peace) Judges 6:24 – The name Gideon gave the altar that he built in Ophrah (Judg. 6:24). God has provided us with perfect peace, if our mind remains steadfast on him (Isa 26:3-4). We are admonished to cast our care, because He cares for us. Christ also left an abiding peace within our hearts. The kingdom of God is righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost (Rom 14:17). Let peace be your umpire today.
  11. Jehovah Shaphat אֶהְיֶה שָׁפַט (The Lord, the Judge) Judges 11:27 – Jephthah appealed to the Lord, the great judge of heaven and earth, to decide between Ammon and Israel. The Lord responds (Judges 11:29-33). The Ammonites were the descendants of Lot. They laid to the east of Israel’s holdings. Previously the Lord had granted the Amorite land of the kings (Sihon and Og) to Israel. Ammon had no legitimate claim over the promised land and were wrong to oppose Israel. The Lord judged Ammon and victory was granted to Israel.
  12. Jehovah Sabaoth אֶהְיֶה צָבָא (The Lord of Hosts) 1st Samuel 1:3 – The phrase “Lord of Hosts” communicates God’s role as a warrior who fights both in the cosmic conflict against divine forces and through human historical events for His people, Israel. This name was used in the days of David and the prophets, attesting to God’s sovereign power in the heavenly realms. Right now, there is an army of angels at the beck and call of the Lord. They seek to enforce God’s bidding in the earth and hearken to the voice of His word (Ps 103:20). God is the Commander in Chief of the heavenly hosts. As a military title, it signifies that God is more than enough for any adversary and our victory is assured!
  13. Jehovah Elyon אֶהְיֶה עֶלְיוֹן (The Lord, the Blesser) Psalm 7:17 – David sings this psalm concerning Cush of the tribe of Benjamin whom he describes as a lion, relentlessly and violently pursuing his prey (David). David appeals to God for justice, after an examination of his own heart. David prophetically declares his persecutors; will fall in the very traps they’ve laid for others and their violent plans will fall on their own heads. If the wicked sow evil, they’ll reap a whirlwind of evil in return (Hos 8:7).
  14. Jehovah Raah or Rohi אֶהְיֶה רָעָה (The Lord, the Shepherd) Psalm 23:1 – The concept of Yahweh as shepherd is a promise God makes throughput the OT. In the book of Ezekiel God declares, “I myself will be the Shepherd of my sheep” (Ezek 34:15). Jesus is identified as the Chief or Good Shepherd (1 Pet 5:4, Mt 2:6; Mic 5:2; Jn 10:11; 1 Pet 2:25; Heb 13:20). He’s not a hireling shepherd (i.e., in it for the money), but cares deeply for his flock. Evidently, He’s willing to sacrifice His life for them. Thank you, Jesus!
  15. Jehovah Hosenu אֶהְיֶה עָשָׂה (The Lord, the Maker) Psalm 95:6 – In this beautiful psalm the Psalter portrays Israel’s God as the great King of nature and nations. He is also above all other gods. The creator holds His creation in the palm of His hand and His handiwork displays His glory. This psalm alludes to the coming Millennial Reign of Christ, and a God who watches over His flock carefully.
  16. Jah-Jehovah אֶהְיֶה עֹז זִמְרָת (The Lord, the Jehovah) Isaiah 12:2; 26:4 – This name is listed among the songs of praise for salvation (Isa 12:1-6, Ex 15:2, Ps 118:14). The Lord is described as ‘my strength and my song’ who assures victory. This passage speaks of a time in this dispensation of Grace when men and women will drink deeply of the joy of their salvation.  For the church, that time is now! God’s promise to ‘save’ includes reconciliation, cleansing, protection and restoration. Our salvation displays the many dimensions of God’s goodness.
  17. Jehovah Gibbor אֶהְיֶה גִּבּוֹר (The Lord, the Mighty) Isaiah 42:13 – The Hebrew word ’Gibbor’ is the same word used to describe the mighty men within King David’s army.  This word is used 249 times in the OT and can mean, “valiant man, strong man, giant, champion or chief.” The background of this theme is God’s victory at the Red Sea in Exodus. God is our mighty warrior who fights for us daily.
  18. Jehovah Zidkenu or Tsidkenu יְהוָֹה צִדְקֵנוּ (The Lord, our Righteousness) Jeremiah 23:6 – This is the name by which Messiah shall be known, ‘the Lord is our righteousness’ (Jer 23:6; 33:16). We do not advocate a works-based righteousness, but we’re made righteous by the blood of Christ. Any attempt to become righteous by anything we ‘do,’ is a futile and frustrating endeavor. We do good works to honor God because our salvation is already assured. The motive of our good works will be judged at the Bema Seat of Christ to gauge if we sought to glorify ourselves or Jesus Christ.
  19. Jehovah Shammah יְהוָֹה שָׁמָּה (The Lord, the Ever-present) Ezekiel 48:35 – This phrase refers to the city which the prophet Ezekiel saw in his vision and testifies of His omnipresence. Our Lord is ever present, in a time of need. He is fully aware of any wrongdoings you may have endured. He said He’d never leave us nor forsake us (Heb 13:5). The Holy Spirit is our comforter, and you are never alone if you’re in Christ Jesus. Our God is a just God who’ll recompence any wrongdoing in His way and timing.
  20. Jehovah Jehoshua אֶהְיֶה Ἰησοῦς (The Lord Jesus Christ) Matthew 1:21 – Everything culminates in the name of Jesus Christ. His name is above ‘every name’ in heaven, earth and below the earth. One day every knee will bow to His name, either voluntarily or involuntarily (Phil 2:9-11). Jesus Christ is God incarnate, pre-eminent and pre-existent.

There are in fact, eleven additional names of God that warrant mention:

  1. Jehovah-Nigad, the Lord Who Predicts the Future (Isaiah 42:8-9)
  2. El-Shaddai, the Almighty God, the Double-Breasted God (Genesis 17:1-3, Rev 22:4)
  3. Jehovah-Ahavah, God Is Love (Isaiah 63:9, 1 John 4:16)
  4. Jehovah-Qanna, the Lord Is Jealous (Exodus 20:4-6)
  5. Jehovah-Kavod, the Lord of Glory (Psalm 24:7-10)
  6. Jehovah-Tsedek, the Lord Is Justice (Isaiah 30:18, Psalm 33:5)
  7. Jehovah-Chesed, the Lord Is Merciful (Psalms 59:17, 21:7, Ex 34:6-7, Rom 9:18)
  8. Jehovah-Magen, the Lord a Shield (Genesis 15:1, Deut 33:29, Luke 13:34)
  9. Jehovah-Hayah, the Lord Is Self-Sufficient, the Great I AM (Proverbs 30:4)
  10. Jehovah-Kadosh, the Lord Is Holy, Pure, and Undefiled (Psalm 99:3, Heb 7:26)
  11. Jehovah-Or, the Lord Is Light (Psalm 36:9, 1 John 1:5)

Have you believed on the Lord Jesus Christ? If not, click here to find out more…

Author – Carl G.M. Joseph

Bibliography:

Bible Doctrines I – Redemptive Names Handout (Rev. Tad Gregurich-RBTC).

New Living Translation (NLT) Study Bible – Tyndale House Publishers, Carol Stream, Illinois (2017).

Dempsey Rosales Acosta, “Lord of Hosts,” ed. John D. Barry et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2016).

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